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Af Saul Kit (2019)
Active immunization against a variety of microorganisms or their components, with the ultimate goal of protecting the host against subsequent challenge by the naturally occurring infectious agent. The terms vaccination and vaccine were originally used only in connection with Edward Jenner's method for preventing smallpox, introduced in 1796. In 1881, Louis Pasteur proposed that these terms should be used to describe any prophylactic immunization. Vaccination now refers to active immunization against a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites (for example, malaria and trypanosomes) [Fig. 1].